Myanmar has a large marine territory of important coastal and marine ecosystems. It includes the Myeik Archipelago, which is made up of hundreds of islands.
Maritime transportation serves more than 80% of the nation’s trade and the country has developed a pool of seafarers that are deployed on board ships engaged in international voyages across the world.
The fisheries sector is the second largest food producing sector – a major source of food and employment. The seafood sector alone directly employs 3-4 million people and focuses primarily on the export market.
Ports Of Myanmar
Myanmar has 9 ports catering mainly to sea and coastal trade. Yangon port is the main gateway to seaborne trade and handles about 90% of maritime export and import cargo.
Following the increase of maritime cargo traffic through Yangon Port in recent years, additional terminals and facilities have been developed in the Yangon and Thilawa areas.
Flag / Port State Responsibilities
The Department of Marine Administration (DMA) is responsible for discharging the functions and responsibilities of Myanmar in its capacities as a flag and port State. The DMA ensures that flagged ships comply to safety standards and improve the safety record of Myanmar registered ships, as well as protect the marine environment from pollutants generated by the discharges from ships.
The Myanmar merchant fleet engaged in international voyages consists of 10 general cargo ships of 82,040 gross tonnage approximately. The domestic fleet comprises of 11 passenger ships and 532 cargo ships, including tankers.
Laws & Regulations
Two maritime institutes in the country are responsible for delivering education and training to prospective merchant mariners, consistent with the requirements of the International Convention on the Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping for Seafarers (STCW Convention).
Both Myanmar’s maritime transport policy and maritime sector is currently undergoing changes, including, for example, the recent privatisation of the merchant fleet.
International / Regional / Sub-Regional Memberships / Cooperation
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) – Member
- Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Member
- ASEAN Maritime Transport Working Group (MTWG) – Member
- Indian Ocean Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control – Member
- Ballast Water Management Convention 2004 (BWM) This convention is a targeted treaty for ratification under the MEPSEAS Project.
- BUNKERS Convention 2001
- CLC Protocol 1992
- COLREG Convention 1972
- IMO Convention 1948
- LOAD LINES Convention 1966
- MARPOL Annex I – V 1973/78 (Annexes I, II and V are targeted instruments for ratification under the MEPSEAS Project.)
- OPRC Convention 1990
- SOLAS Convention 1974
- STCW Convention 1978
- SUA Convention 1988
- SUA Protocol 1988
- TONNAGE Convention 1969